Monel 400 Alloy

Chemical Analysis
C Carbon
0.30 max
Mn Manganese
2.00 max
Si Silicon
0.50 max
S Sulfur
Fe Iron
2.50 max
Ni (plus Co) Nickel + Cobalt
63.0 min
Cu Copper
28.0 – 34.0

General characteristics of Monel 400 Alloy

This is a nickel-copper, solid-solution alloy that is hardenable only by cold working. It has high strength and toughness over a wide temperature range and is resistant to many corrosive environments.


The alloy is used in many fields, especially marine and chemical processing.
Typical applications are valves and pumps; pump and propeller shafts; marine fixtures and fasteners; electrical and electronic components; springs; chemical processing equipment; gasoline and fresh water tanks; crude petroleum stills, process vessels and piping; boiler feedwater heaters and other heat exchangers.


The alloy is quite soft at high temperatures and hence forging is a relatively simple process. Forging may be carried out between 2150ºF (1175ºC) and 1200ºF (650ºC), with the lower temperatures producing higher mechanical properties and smaller grain size. In no event should the material be heated above 2150ºF (1175ºC.)

Heat treatment

Both hot-rolled and cold-rolled material may be subjected to, and will profit from, an annealing treatment at temperatures varying between 1300ºF (705ºC) and 1800ºF (980ºC.) For example, cold-worked material may be brought to an annealed temper by heating for 3 hours at 1300ºF (705ºC) whereas hot-rolled material may require nearer 1500ºF (815ºC). As with most heat treatment operations, best practices are developed by trial and error.


Cold-drawn or cold-drawn stress-relieved material gives best machinability and surface finish. The alloy is not difficult to machine, and good industry practices will give good results.


Most conventional welding processes may be used to join 400 alloy to itself or to dissimilar metals. The choice of process or of filler metal will be determined by the material(s) to be joined and by the end application. In such instances it is recommended that the metal supplier be consulted for optimum welding procedures.

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