W - Chemical symbol for Tungsten, from wolfram.

Walking Beam - A means of conveying steel bars, billets, slabs, etc., across a cooling bed or through a furnace. The material to be conveyed rests on a metal grid and a second grid is arranged to lift up and move forward between the stationary grid, thus lifting the material and "walking" it forward, before returning to make another stroke.

Walking Beam Furnace - A type of continuous reheat furnace in which the billet or slab moves through distinct heating zones within the furnace: By controlling the speed through the zones, steelmakers can achieve precise rolling temperatures and consume less fuel during operation.

Waloon Process - An early two-hearth process for making wrought iron by refining cast iron. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace known as a finery; re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace known as a chafery.

Warpage - Deformation other than contraction that develops in a casting between solidification and room temperature; also, distortion occurring during annealing, stress relieving, and high-temperature service.

Wash - A casting defect resulting from erosion of sand by metal flowing over the mold or corded surfaces. They appear as rough spots and excess metal on the casting surface. Also call cuts.

Washburn Core - A thin core which constricts the riser at the point of attachment to the casting. The thin core heats quickly and promotes feeding of the casting. Riser removal cost is minimized.

Waste Heat - The heat produced by the steel-making process, which is used to heat the boilers and produce steam.

Waster Coil - A coil with a weight greater than 5000 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications and cannot be sold as a prime coil. These coils get an index number of 800011.

Wasters - Sheets that have prohibitive defects, for example, seams and buckled plates. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only.

Watch Main Spring Steel - Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. Carbon content about 1.15 and Tungsten .17, extra precision rolled.

Water Based - (Aqueous) A coating in which the film forming ingredients are dissolved in or suspended in a volatile system containing water as the major solvent.

Water Column - Device to which the water glass is mounted. The water column is connected to the top and bottom of the steam drum through piping and the water seeks the same level in the column as it is in the boiler. This coupled with the water glass and level controller allows the water level in the boiler to be controlled and measured.

Water Glass - The water glass is mounted to the water column and has a series of vertical buttons which change color from green to red to indicate the level of water in the column. Green represents water and red indicates steam. This allows for visual observation of the water level in the boiler at all times.

Water Lance - A pipe connected by a hose to a water supply. The lance is used to wash slag from the boiler tubes.

Water Test - To subject a casting to water pressure in such a manner that any porous areas will show leakage.

Watt (or KW) - It is the part of the electrical power that actually does the work or gets consumed in a circuit. To find watts, multiply the current times the voltage times the power factor.

Wave - Out-of-flat condition generally introduced during cold-rolling of metal or alloy coils. Edge waves are more common and generally can be minimized by allowing for dropping a cut during edge slitting. It is also possible to produce wavy edges during slitting.

Wavy - Not flat. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness.

Wavy Edges - A term used to describe a quality defect in which the edge of the strip is wavy.

Wax Pattern - 1) A precise duplicate, allowing for shrinkage, of the casting and required gates, usually formed by pouring or injecting molten wax into a die or mold, 2) wax molded around the parts to be welded by a termite welding process.

Wear - The undesired deterioration of a component by the removal of material from its surface.

Web - (1) A single thickness of foil as it leaves the rolling mill. (2)A connecting element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on profile and forgings.

Wedge - In any given coil the variance in width from one edge to the opposite edge. Because USSM buys narrow width (12 to 14) coils slit from wider coils, the wedge effect presents an on-going problem in shape and gauge control.

Wedge Roll - A roll used to stabilize the plate as it enters the slitter knife area.

Weigh-Strip-Weigh - A coating weight test.

Weirbrite Clear - A dried-in-place chromate treatment applied to Weirzin to provide a bright finish and excellent corrosion protection for non-painted applications.

Weirchrome - (or tin free steel) Also Electrolytic Chromium Coated Sheets (ECCS) or TFS. Light-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on which chromium and oxides of chromium have been electrodeposited; primarily used for drawn applications, can ends and closures.

Weirchrome - Weirton Steel trade name for Electrolytically Chrome Coated Sheet (ECCS); See Electrolytic Chrome Coated Sheets.

Weirite - Single reduced product.

Weirlite Mill - A cold reduction rolling mill which further reduces (20 to 45%) the gauge of steel that has already been reduced at the tandem mill and has been annealed. This mill is used to produce double reduced (DR) tin mill products at WSC.

Weirzin - Electrolytic zinc coated steel. Coating weights range from 0.025 oz./sq. ft to 0.20 oz./ sq/ ft. This can be given a variety of post treatments to enhance corrosion resistance and paintability.

Weld, Incomplete - The junction line of metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape), seperated and not completely refoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity

Weld Bead - The built-up portion of a fusion weld, formed either from the filler metal or the melting of the parent metal.

Weld Line - See Seam,Extrusion.

Weld Ticket - A red or green ticket used to identify location of a weld in a coil. These tickets are placed in the sidewall of a coil while the coil is being produced.

Weldability - The feasibility of welding a particular metal or alloy. A number of factors affect weldability including chemistry,surface finish,heat-treating tendencies, etc.

Welder Board - A "U" shaped wooden trough used to guide hand welder

Welder Box - Special electrical outlet receptacle to accommodate plug from hand welder. Located at several places throughout the line.

Welder Clamps - Devices used to hold the strip securely in place while a weld is being made.

Welder Pinch Roll - A roll located on the 3-high tower used to run the strip into and out of the welder.

Welder Stick - A tool used to lift and hold the edge of the strip to be welded. This purpose is to check the alignment of the edges.

Welding Electrode - A metal or alloy in rod or wire forms used in electric arc welding to maintain the arc and at the same time supply molten metal or alloy at the point where the weld is to be accomplished.

Welding Flash - Skin exposed too long to the ultraviolet rays of welding or melting arcs will burn as in a sunburn. Though temporary blindness can result, it is not permanent, as is popularly believed.

Welding Rod - A rolled, extruded or cast round filler metal for use in joining by welding.

Welding Shielded-Arc - Electric-arc welding in which the molten weld metal is protected from the atmosphere. An inert gaseous atmosphere or fluxcoated electrode may be employed.

Welding Stress - That stress resulting from localized heating and cooling of metal during welding.

Welding, Arc - Welding accomplished by using an electric arc that can be formed between a metal or carbon electrode and the metal being welded; between two separate electrodes, as in atomic hydrogen welding or between the two separate pieces being welded, as in flash welding.

Welding, Autogenous - Method of uniting two pieces of metal by melting their edges together without solder or any added welding metal, as by the thermite process that employs a medium of finely divided aluminum powder and oxide or iron by which a temperature of some 2982.2 B0C (5400 B0F) is obtained.

Well level - The amount of water that is in the pump hole. It is measured in feet.

Wet Film Thickness - Wet film thickness can be measured using the PFund Gauge. A spherical section of glass is pressed into the wet coating. The diameter of the spot is measured in mm and wet film thickness correlated to dry film thickness.

Wet Scrubber (Gas Washer) - In air pollution control, a liquid (usually water) spray device for collecting pollutants in escaping foundry gases.

Wettability Test - The degree to which a metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape), separated and not completely rejoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.

Wetting - A phenomenon involving a solid and a liquid in such intimate contact that the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid. Thus a solid that is wetted, on being removed from the liquid bath, will have a thin continuous layer of liquid adherring to it. Foreign substances such as grease may prevent wetting. Addition agents, such as detergents, may induce wetting by lowering the surface tension of the liquid.

Whiskers - Thin hair-like growths on metal that are barely visible to the naked eye, they are stronger than the metals from which they are formed,probably because they are free from defects.

White Annealing - A heat treatment process carried out on pickled steel with the objective of eliminating the hydrogen that has entered the steel during the pickling operation thus removing any tendency to hydrogen embrittlement.

White Iron - A cast that is essentially free of graphite and most of the carbon content is present as separate grains of hard Fe3C. white iron exhibits a white,crystalline fracture surface because fracture occurs along the iron carbide platelets.

White Rust - A coating metal oxide, such as zinc oxide, which develops when the oxygen in the atmosphere mixes with the coating material (such as galvanized coating). See Sacrificial Barrier.

White Ticket - Ticket used to identify coil. The white ticket contains the coil IPM number, and is placed in the sidewall of the coil.

Wide-Flange Beam - A structural steel section on which the flanges are not tapered, but have equal thickness from the tip to the web and are at right angles to the web. Wide-flange beams are differentiated by the width of the web, which can range from 3 inches to more than 40 inches, and by the weight of the beam, measured in pounds per foot.

Widmanstatten Structure - A structure characterized by a geometric pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase on certain crystallographic planes in the parent phase. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related cystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase.

Width Variation - Product whose width fluctuates above and below the customer's finished width tolerance.

Widths - The lateral dimension of rolled steel, as opposed to the length or the gauge (thickness). If width of the steel strip is not controlled during rolling, the edges must be trimmed.

Wild Steel - Steel which has not been completely deoxidized and reacts violently after casting due to liberation of gases of cooling.

Winch Drive - (Clutch) A hydraulic piston that applies pressure to clutch plates to obtain the required motor amperage, controlling loop tension on the winch drive.

Wind Box - The box-type structure of the boiler, located on the burner deck that contains the fuel supply manifolds, burners and air registers. Combustion air is delivered to the windbox where it is distributed by means of the air registers to all four burners.

Wire, Alclad - A composite wire product comprised of an aluminum-alloy wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion

Wire,Cold-Heating - Wire quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as ribets and bolts.

Wire, Drawn - Wire brought to final dimensions by the drawing through a die.

Wire, Extruded - Wire produced by hot extruding.

Wire,Flattened and Slit - Flattened wire that has been slit to obtain square edges.

Wire,Flattened - Wire having two parallel flat surfaces and round edges produced by roll-flattening round wire

Wire - A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges or is round, hexagonal or octagonal and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel faces is less than 0.375 inch.

Wizard Control - Control used to set auto valves at specific points.

WMB, WHB and Extra WHB Grades - Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels.

Wolfram - The alternative name for tungsten

Woody Fracture - A fracture that is fibrous or woody in appearance due to the elongation of the individual grains. This may be accentuated by the presence of slag or by a banded structure. It is grey and dull and is characteristic of ductile but non-homogeneous material such as wrought iron

Wootz - A carbon steel containing 1 to 1.6% C produced by melting a bloomery iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A.D.

Work Hardening - Increase in resistance to deformation (i.e. in hardness) produced by cold working. Same as strain hardening

Work Roll Balance - Cylinders that supply the force used to hold the work rolls up in place.

Work Rolls - Two, smaller, rolls of a four-high stand of the Weirlite Mills, Tandem Mills, and the Temper Mills. These rolls, through the use of hydraulic pressure, are responsible (along with the backup rolls) for the shape of the steel.

Wrap, Loose - A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension which creates a small void between adjacent wraps.

Wringer Rolls - A set of rubber rolls that removes water or solution from the plate.

Wrinkling - A coating defect consisting of the formation of small ridges or folds in the coating which resemble the surface of a prune, but are usually smaller in size.

Wrought Iron - An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced. The iron has a low carbon content.

Wrought Metals - An easily welded or forged metal containing approximately 0.2 percent carbon and total impurities less than 0.5 percent.

Wrought Prodcut - A product that has been subjected to mechanical working by such process as rolling,extruding,forging,etc.

Wustite - The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions they do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO.

WZN - Weir zinc product from the #1 Plater.

Water Hardening - Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine, after heating.

Wedge - A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning.

Weld - A union made by welding.

Weld Bead - A deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass.

Weldability - Suitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions.

Welding - A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously, so that recrystallization occurs across the interface.

Welding - Joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal, to produce a loxalized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface.

Wetting Agent - A surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the cohesion within the liquid.

Widmanstatten Structure - A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment.

WMB, WHB and Extra WHB Grades - Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels.

Work Hardening - Increase in resistance to deformation (i.e. in hardness) produced by cold working.

Work Hardening - Same as strain hardening.

Workability - The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes.

Wrought Iron - Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements, but containing 1-3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction, giving the iron a characteristic grain. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily.

Wrought Iron - A commercial iron consisting of slag (iron silicate) fibers entrained in a ferrite matrix.

Wustite - The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions the do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO.