T&C - Threaded and coupled. Male (pin) threads are cut into and cut into pieces and a coupling provides female threads for both lengths joined.

Ta - Chemical symbol for Tantalum

Table Mill - In ring rolling, a type of ring forging equipment employing multiple mandrels with a common main roll. Usually used in high volume production of small-diameter rolled rings.

Table Test - A quality test taken to visually inspect the plate.

Tach Roll - Roll used for measuring line speed.

Tachometer - An instrument used to measure the revolutions per minute (rpm) of a rotating shaft of a turbine.

Tackiness - A coating defect consisting of a stickiness of a cured coating. Blocking is caused by tackiness.

Taconite - Natural mineral containing less than 30% iron. It is the primary ore used in blast furnaces. Domestic supplies of iron-rich ores (greater than 50% iron) were largely depleted in the 1940s, so integrated steel companies now process the lower-grade taconite to make it useful.

Tail - Slag that has cooled to a solid phase at the spout.

Tail End - 1) The balance of the coil removed from the entry end. 2) The portion of the coil that makes up the inner diameter on the entry reels and the outer diameter on the delivery reels.

Tail Mark - See Mark, Roll Bruise.

Tailing Heat - Heat cycle setting on the welder for the end of the weld.

Tailings - The end-product or waste of ore mining, usually piled up in close proximity of a mining area. Some will often contain some metal that can be extracted.

Tailored Blanks - A section of sheet or strip that is cut-to-length and trimmed to match specifications for the manufacturer's stamping design for a particular part. Because excess steel is cut away (to save shipping costs), all that remains for the stamper is to impart the three-dimensional shape with a die press (see Blanking).

Take-up - Steel block where material is wound when rolling or slitting.

Tandem Mill - A cluster of rolling mills where mill stands are in tandem. At WSC, this terminology generally refers to WSC's cold reducing mills.

Tangential Sprays - Sprays that cool down exhaust heat before it enters the scrubber duct work.

Tank - A storage receptacle for hydraulic oil, morgoil, drive oil or grease.

Tank Line - Any hose, pipe or tube used to carry a fluid from a system to the system's storage tank.

Tantalum - A rare metal of silver white color having excellent corrosion resistance and a high melting point. It is widely used for chemical process equipment and specialised aero-space and nuclear applications.

Tap - o drain molten steel from a steelmaking furnace.

Tap Out System - System which includes the tap-out box, Venturi (dough-nut), sluice ditch, and ash collection box. Here the hot slag is tapped off of the bottom of the boiler and collected in the ash box for further processing

Tape - Used for holding the end of flap down on steel coil.

Tape Measure - Tool used to measure the width of the coil.

Taper Section - A section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest, thereby achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. A sectioning angle 5(degrees) 43 achieves a depth magnification of 10: 1.

Tapping Out - The process of removing molten slag from the bottom of a boiler.

Te - Chemical symbol for Tellurium.

Tear, Speed - A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding direction. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is caused by localized high temperature

Telescoped - Term given when the winding of a coil gradually becomes concave or convex.

Telescoping Coil - A coil that has not wound properly whose sidewall protrudes out. Tension problems or a bad start on the exit reel causes this condition.

Tellurium - Its main use in the steel industry is as an additive in leadbearing freecutting steels to further improve their machinability. Its presence in the steel is either within the manganese sulphide paarticle where it is parially soluble, or as particles combined with lead or manganese. For certain applications it offers significant improvements in machinability but the added cost is a factor that should be taken into account.

Temper - A condition produced in a metal or alloy by mechanical or thermal treatment and having characteristics structure and mechanical properties. A given alloy may be in the fully softened or annealed temper, or it may be cold worked to the hard temper, or further to spring temper. Intermediate tempers produced by cold working (rolling or drawing) are called "quarter hard", "half-hard" and "three quarters hard", and are determined by the amount of cold reduction and the resulting tensile properties. In addition to the annealed temper, conditions produced by thermal treatment are the solution heat-treated temper and the heat-treated and artificially aged temper. Other tempers involve a combination of mechanical and thermal treatments and include that temper produced by cold working after heat treating, and that produced by artificial aging of alloys that are as-cast, as-extruded, as-forged and heat treated, and worked.

Temper (Met.) - The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency. Each branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own system of temper designations. In flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel, tin mill products, stainless strip, aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are shown as follows

Temper Brittleness - Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within or cooled slowly through a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at room temperature or lower temperatures.

Temper Code - Industry-standard code that indicates the hardness of the steel.

Temper Colors - Before the use of instruments such as pyrometers, colors were used to judge temperature when hardening and tempering. For example, on carbon tool steel where the tempering range may typically be from 200oC to 350oC, the color change with the rise in temperature giving light straw at around 210oC, Purple 275oC, and Grey at 330oC, The practice wtill continues in workshops where controlled heat treatment facilities are not available.

Temper Mill - A relatively light cold rolling operation that may be used on hot rolled, cold rolled and some coated steel such as galvanized. Temper rolling hot rolled sheet helps to improve flatness, minimize coil breaks and fluting and alter mechanical properties. Temper rolling cold reduced and coated sheet steel improves surface finish, alters mechanical properties and reduces the tendency of the steel to flute during fabrication.

Temper Rolled - A product that has been processed at the Temper Mill.

Temper Rolling - Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually 1/2 to 1 1/2%) to forestall stretcher strains. Also termed Pinch Pass or Skin Rolled.

Temper Rolling - A cold-rolling process that develops the proper stiffness temper in steel, improves flatness, and imparts a desired surface finish.

Temper Stressing - Quenching in water from the tempering temperature to improve fatigue strength.

Temper Variation - Considered a defect when variation of the hardness or forming properties of single reduced plate as generally compared to the temper designation of the plate.

Temperature - Degree of warmth or coldness in relation to an arbitrary zero measured on one or more of accepted scales, as Centigrade, Fahrenheit, etc.

Temperature, Holding - 1) Temperature above the critical phase transformation range at which castings are held as a part of the heat treatment cycle, 2) The temperature maintained when metal is held in a furnace, usually prior to pouring.

Temperature, Pouring - The temperature of the metal as it is poured into the mold.

Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip - 90/1.03 carbon range (Also known as clock spring steel.) This product, while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip, is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. Manufactured from carbon range of .90/1.03 with Rockwell range C 48/51. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed. It is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a wide range of uses, such as coiled and flat mechanical springs, ignition vibrator springs, springs for timing devices, springs for the electric and electonic fields, steel tapes, rules, etc.

Tempered Martensite - Martensite that has been heated to produce to BCC iron and a fine dispersion of iron carbide.

Tempered Spring Steel Strip - Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. Where specification calls for blue or straw color, same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required. Blue is developed at approximately 600 (degrees) F.

Tempering - Also known as drawing, the process by which steel or iron is softened by reheating it at a considerably lower temperature than that at which its previous hardening was done.

Tempering (Also termed 'drawing.') - A process of re-heating quench-hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite.

Tensile Strength - The maximum stress in uniaxial tension testing which a material will withstand prior to fracture. The ultimate tensile strength is calculated from the maximum load applied during the test divided by the original cross-sectional area.

Tensile Test - (Tension Test) A destructive mechanical test whereby strength and ductility properties are measured.

Tension Level - Stamco Leveler in #5 Galvinized line - levels the steel.

Tension Leveling - A mechanical operation where coil metal is stretched beyond its yield point.

Tension Scratch - See Scratch,Tension.

Terne Plate - Sheet steel, coated with a lead-tin alloy. The percentage of tin is usually kept as low as possible because of its high cost; however, about 15% is normally necessary in order to obtain proper coating of the steel, since pure lead does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion.

Test Flat - A means of testing "by coils," for customers who buy "by coil". The coil is put on the cutting line, about 100 sheets cut to check flatness, back the coil off, and, determine whether coil will be acceptable to the customer.

Test Gauge - A measuring device used to check hydraulic pressure in different components of a hydraulic system.

Test Lug - An ear like projection cast as part of the casting and later removed for testing purposes.

Test Sample - A piece of the strip used by various departments to test or evaluate the quality of the steel. The size and place of the sample taken will vary.

Test Water - A boiler water sample taken for a chemical test.

Texture - In a polycrystalline aggregate, the state of distribution of crystal orientations. In the usual sense, it is synonymous with preferred orientation, in which the distribution is not random.

Thermal Conductivity - The property of matter by which heat energy is transmitted through particles in contact. For engineering purposes, the amount of heat conducted through refractories is usually given in Btu per hour for one square foot of area, for a temperature difference of one degree Fahrenheit, and for a thickness of one inch, Btu/hr B7ft B7F/in.

Thermal Contraction - The decrease in a linear dimension and volume of a material accompanying a change of temperature.

Thermal Expansion - The increase in a linear dimension and volume of a material accompanying a change of temperature.

Thermal Fatigue - Failure resulting from rapid cycles of alternate heating and cooling.

Thermal Flattening - Similar to stress relieving in that the metal is passed through a continuous furnace, but tension is also applied elongating the metal to improve over-all flatness.

Thermal Shock - Stress developed by rapid and uneven heating of a material.

Thermal Spalling - Breaking up of refractory from stresses which arise during repeated heating and cooling.

Thermal Stability - Resistance of a material to drastic changes in temperature.

Thermal Stresses - Stresses in metal, resulting from non-uniform distribution of temperature.

Thermography - 1) The technique of obtaining a photographic record of heat distribution in a solid or fluid.

Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock - A hardened and tempered, edged, ground, and polished thin section, high carbon strip steel. Usually 1/2 in width and in thicknesses from .001 to .050 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers, machinists, and automobile technicians. It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses. Also prepared in standard 12 lengths with rounded ends and in 10 ' and 25' coils. Universally used in the metal industry.

Thomas Process - The continental name for the basic Bessemer steel making process, now superseded by modern day BOS plants

Threader Coil - 1) A narrow width coil of TU plate with a base weight between 75# to 100#. This coil is used anytime the line is to be shut down or on a line start-up. 2) The last coil threaded through the line. The threader coil remains in the line until start up. 3) A coil fed into the line only to make a connection between sizes.

Threading Table - Extension plate to assist in threading the coil end into the McKay leveler.

Three-Piece Can - Three-piece cans consist of a body and two ends. The body side seam can be accomplished by soldering, cementing or welding. The two ends are attached using a double-rolled seam. The curl on the end, containing the seal compound and its flange on the can body are indexed and rolled flat. The sealing compound between fold gives an hermetic seal.

Three-Quarter Hard Temper - (A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175,000 T.S., 135,000 Y.S. min. (B) In Brass mill terminology, this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29.4% thickness reduction.

Throttle Valve - A manual valve used to regulate the amount of steam entering the turbine.

Ti - Chemical symbol for Titanium

Tie Bar, Rod - Bar or rod-shaped part of the casting added to prevent distortion caused by uneven contraction between separated members.

Tight Flask - A type of flask which remains on mold during pouring. Lugs are normally provided for clamping cope and drag together for pouring.

Time Delay - The amount of time between the booster pumps starting and the main pumps starting. This is the time it takes the computer to examine the A.G.C. or C.V.C. hydraulic system for start-up.

Time Temperature - An isothermal transforamtion diagram showing the relationship between temperature and the time taken.

Tin - Chemical symbol Sn. Element No. 50 of the periodic system; atomic weight 118.70. Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility, but low tensile strength; melting point 449 (degrees) F., boiling point 4384 (degrees) F., yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal; specific gravity 7.28. Principal use as a coating on steel in tin plate; also as a constituent in alloys.

Tin Free Steel - 1) Single or double reduced black plate having a thin coating of chromium and chromium oxide applied electrolytically. Weirton's trade name is Weirchrome and the coating weight is 5 mg/sq. ft. or 0.000003 inches thick. 2) Carbon steel that is coated with chromium rather than tin. Weirton's trade name is Weirchrome and the coating weight is 5 mg/sq. ft. or 0.000003 inches thick.

Tin Mill - Continuous tin-plating facility to produce tin mill steel sheet to be used in food and beverage cans and other containers.

Tin Mill Product - Tin Plate, Tin Free Steel, or Black Plate.

Tin Plate - Tinplate is low carbon mild steel coated on both top and bottom surfaces with an electrolytic deposition of tin. The deposited tin exists as alloyed and free tim and has a passivated surface as well as a coating of oil.

Tin-Free Steel - Chromium-coated steel. Because it is used in food cans just like tin plate, it ironically is classified as a tin mill product. Tin-free steel is easier to recycle because tin will contaminate scrap steel in even small concentrations.

Tin/Chrome Plating - A plating process whereby the molecules from the positively charged tin or chromium anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. The thickness of the coating is readily controlled through regulation of the voltage and speed of the sheet through the plating area.

Tinplate - Thin steel sheet with a very thin coating of metallic tin. Used primarily in can-making.

Titanium - Chemical symbol Ti. Element No. 22 of the periodic system; atomic weight 47.90; melting point about 3270 (degrees) F.; boiling point over 5430 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 4.5. Bright white metal, very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel. (1) Fixes carbon in inert particles (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in medium chromium steels. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. Now finding application in its own right because of its high strength and good corrosion resistance.

Tolerances - A customer's specifications can refer to dimensions or to the chemical properties of steel ordered. The tolerance measures the allowable difference in product specifications between what a customer orders and what the steel company delivers. There is no standard tolerance because each customer maintains its own variance objective. Tolerances are given as the specification, plus or minus an error factor; the smaller the range, the higher the cost.

Toll Processing - The act of processing steel for a fee ("toll"). Owners of the steel sheet may not possess the facilities to perform needed operations on the material (or may not have the open capacity). Therefore, another steel mill or service center will slit, roll, coat, anneal, or plate the metal for a fee.

Ton - "Unit of measure for steel scrap and iron ore. GROSS TON 2,240 pounds. LONG (NET) TON 2,240 pounds. SHORT (NET) TON 2,000 pounds. Normal unit of statistical raw material input and steel output in the United States. METRIC TON 1,000 kilograms. 2,204.6 pounds or 1.102 short tons."

Tonghold - The portion of the stock by which the operator grips the stock with tongs. A small portion of metal projecting from the forging used to manipulate the piece during the forging operation, usually trimmed off.

Tongs - Metal holder used to handle metal pieces.

Tool - A term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, etc., used in the production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube

Tool Steel - Any high-carbon or alloy steel used to make a cutting tool for machining metals and for metal-casting dies.

Tool Wear - A gradual deterioration of tools and dies. In the case of fabrication of stainless steels, the surface oxides of the stainless gradually either abrade or build up on the tooling. Other factors (high hardness,non-metallic inclusions) can also accelerate tool wear.

Tooling Plate - A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thickness 0.250 inch or greater and with edges either as-cast, sheared or sawed with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes to tool and jig applications.

Tooling Points - The fixed positions on the casting surfaces used for references during layout and machining.

Top Dross - Skimmings for the continuous galvanize pot. Composition consists of approximately 87% zinc. 5% aluminum, and 6% to 8% iron.

Torn Surface - A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by extrusion or drawing tools.

Torpedo Car - The hot metal car used to carry molten iron from the blast furnace to steelmaking units.

Torsional Strength - The resistance of a bar to twisting. Closely related to its shear strength.

Toughness - The ability of the metal to absorb energy and to deform plastically during fracture. Toughness values obtained in testing depend upon the test temperature, the rate of loading, the size of the test specimen, as well as the presence of a notch and its acuity.

Tower - 1) Consist of sets of mounted rolls. The top rolls are in a fixed position but the bottom rolls are mounted on a moveable carriage. The carriage is controlled by cables that can move the carriage up or down in the tower. When the carriage is lowered extra strip is stored in the tower. This strip is used when a weld is being made. 2) Tower for loops of steel (#5 Galvanize); allows entry end to shut down without stopping production; also a tower at which allows the coating to freeze on the steel.

Tower Oven - Vertical, continuous core oven with suspended shelves attached to sprocket-driven chains.

Tracer Steam - Companion line to help maintain proper oil temperature.

Tracking - Side-to-side movement of the strip through any operating unit.

Traffic Mark - Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contacting surface.

Trailerload - quantities of commodities, including primary and secondary metals, that amount to as much as 44,000 pounds each, which is the standard weight limit on U.S. highways.

Tramp - Combustion air.

Tramp Element (Trace) - Contaminant in the components of a furnace charge, or in the molten metal or casting, whose presence is felt to be either unimportant or undesirable to the quality of the casting.

Transducer - A device used to change a pressure (force) that acts upon it into an electrical signal.

Transfer - Transferring strip from #1 to #2 reel on a continuous unit.

Transfer Cars - Electric rail cars which move coils in the Tin Mill from the C.A. lines to the Temper Mill stock floor, or from the DR Mills to the Plater stock floor. (a.k.a. the Hoopey railroad.)

Transfer Ladle - A ladle that may be supported on a monorail or carried in a shank and used to transfer metal from the melting furnace to the holding furnace or from furnace to pouring ladles.

Transfer Pump - A pump used to move hydraulic oil from one storage tank to another.

Transferring Boilers - Term used for the process of changing from primary operating boiler to the standby boiler.

Transformation (Temperature) Range - The critical temperature at which a change in phase occurs. To distinguish between the critical points in heating and cooling those in heating are referred to as the Ac points (c for Chauffage or heating) and those in cooling, Ar. (r for Refroidissement)

Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges) - Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. The two ranges are distinct, sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. The limiting temperatures of these ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature, particularly during cooling.

Transformer - An electrical device that uses a magnetic field to change a given voltage or current to a higher or lower voltage or current.

Transit Rust - This rust defect occurs when strip or plate becomes wet from rain or snow during transit; or from damaged containers exposing plate in transit. Strip or plate will generally exhibit a pattern of rust on the edge going inwards due to capillary action.

Transition Temperature - (1) An arbitrarily defined temperature within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to promarily crystalline (cleavage) fracture. Commonly used definitions are transition temperature for 50% cleavage fracture, 10-ft-lb transition temperature, and transition temperature for half maximum energy. (2) Sometimes also used to denote the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly with temperature.

Transmitter - Where signal comes from for gauges on the boiler.

Transverse Bow - See Bow,Transverse.

Transverse Direction - A direction perpendicular to the direction of working

Transverse Strength - A measurement of strength when the load is applied acrosss the longitudinal flow of the frain of a metal. Certain impurities such as sulphur have a detrimental effect on the transverse strength. This can be minimised by the inclusion modification process.

Transverse Test - A test taken at right angles to the principal direction of rolling or forging.

Traverse - Transfer car used to move coils on and off, or toward and away, from the reel.

Traverse Car - Used to place a coil on the reel or remove coil from the reel. The traverse cars have movement in and out or up and down.

Tread Plate - Sheet or plate having a raise figured pattern on one surface to provide improved traction.

Trees - A series of vertical spray nozzles arranged in fourteen groups of three nozzles on each tree. The spray from the trees is directed at the rebound panels to maximize particulate removal from the exhaust gases.

Trim Inclusion - Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil

Trip - To instantly put a boiler or piece of machinery out of service. To disturb the logic of boiler.

Trip Out - One or more circuit breakers opening up and stopping the flow of power.

Triple Spot Test - See Minimum Triple Spot Average Coating.

Trojan Horse - A barrel shaped vessel containing a seal oil reservoir and a vacuum tank. Oil travels from the defoaming tanks into the seal oil reservoir. It then flows into the vacuum tank compartment where gases and vapor are liberated from the oil. The oil is then drawn from the bottom of the vacuum tank through a differential pressure regulator to maintain the oil seals.

Troosite (obsolete) - A previously unresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or by quenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. Preferred terminology for the first product is tempered martensite; for the latter, fine pearlite.

Trowel Steel - Hardened and tempered spring steel. .90 to 1.05 carbon content. Ordinary tolerances, but rolled extra flat -- Rockwell C 50. Used in the manufacture of plastering trowels.

Truckload - quantities of commodities, including primary and secondary metals, that amount to as much as 44,000 pounds each, which is the standard weight limit on U.S. highways.

Truss Spring Steel - Supplied cold rolled and bright annealed. Carbon content about .70 -- Manganese .74. Must be formed very severely and must be as free as possible from decarburization.

TTT Curve - An abbreviation ot Time Temperature Transformation Curve.

Tube Bloom - This term is not recommended. The term Tube Stock is preferred.

Tube Stock - A semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube.

Tube, Alclad - Composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core habing on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.

Tube,Arc-Welded - Tube made from sheet or plate but welded by either gas-tungsten or gas-metal arc-welding method with or without the use of filler metal.

Tube, Brazed - A tube produced by forming and seambrazing sheet.

Tube, Butt-Welded - A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by positioning on edge of the sheet against the other for welding.

Tube, Drawn - A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die. (Note: this product may be produced from either seamless or non-seamless extruded stock or from welded stock).

Tube, Embossed - A tube the outside surface of which has been roll-embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.

Tube, Extruded - A tube formed by not extruding. (Note: This product may be either seamless or non-seamless.)

Tube, Finned - Tube which has integral fins or projections protruding from its outside surface.

Tube, Fluted - A tube or nominally uniform wall thickness having regular, longitudinal,concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

Tube, Heat-Exchange - A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators. (Note: this product is typically seamless drawn tube.)

Tube, Helical-Welded - A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding

Tube, Lap-Welded - A welded tube the seam of which is formed by longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding

Tube, Lock-Seam - A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock-seaming sheet.

Tube, Open-Seam - A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform wall thickness and approximately fubular form but having a longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25 percent of the outside diameter or greatest over-all dimension. Also referred to as Butt-Seam Tube.

Tube, Redraw - This term is not recommended. The term Tube Stock is preferred.

Tube, Seamless - A tube that does not contain any line junctures (metallurgical welds) resulting from the method of maufacture. (Note: This product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piecer processes. Tube produced by porthole die extrusion, bridge die extrusion or welding processes aare generally considered Non-Seamless.)

Tube, Sized - A tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight amount to minimize ovality.

Tube, Stepped Drawn - A drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals slong its length.

Tube, Structural - Tube c ommonly used for structural purposes

Tube, Welded - A tube produced by forming and seam-welding sheet longitudinally

Tube - A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is symetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or octagon, elliptical, or square or rectangular with sharp or round corners, and that has uniform wall thickness except as affected by corner radii.

Tubing-Electrical Metallic - A tube having certain standardized length and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than that of Rigid conduit, commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes, for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for the electric wiring

Tubing - When referring to OCTG, tubing is a separate pipe used within the casing to conduct the oil or gas to the surface. Depending on conditions and well life, tubing may have to be replaced during the operational life of a well.

Tubular Conductor - A tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor.

Tuffriding - A form of surface hardening, the process involves nitrogen but does not achieve the hardness of conventional nitriding. Tukon Hardness Test A method for determining microhardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter.

Tumbling - The process for removing scale from forgings in a rotating container by means of impact with each other and abrasive particles and small bits of metal. A process for removing scale and roughness from forgings by impact with each other, together with abrasive material in a rotating container.

Tundish - The reservoir at the top of the continuous caster into which molten steel is poured.

Tungsten - Chemical symbol W. Element No. 74 of the periodic system; atomic weight 183.92. Gray metal of high tensile strength, ductile and malleable when specially handled. It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids, but not to strong alkalis. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. (1) Forms hard abrasion -- resistant particles in tool steels. (2) Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures.

Tunnel Furnace - Type of furnace whereby stock to be heated is placed upon cars which are then pushed or pulled slowly through the furnace.

Turbine - Steam driven mechanical device used to drive a piece of machinery.

Turning - A method for removing the surface from a cicular piece by bringing the cutting edge of a tool against it while the piece is rotated.

Turning Gear - A motor used to rotate the shaft when the generator is down. The turning gear prevents the shaft from warping.

Turntable - The base on which a centrifugal casting mold rests.

Twin - Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship; one may be regarded as the parent, the other as the twin. The orientation of the twin is either a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis.

Twin, Deformation - A twinned region produced by a shear like distortion of the parent crystal structure during deformation. In ferrite, deformation twins form on {211} planes.

Twist - A condition wherin a transverse axis held in the plane of the strip would rotate about the longitundianl axis when moved along the strip.

Two-High Mill - A stand having only two rolls. Some two-high mijlls are reversing with screw-downs to adjust the rolls; others are one way only and may or may not have srew-downs for roll adjustment and may or may not be a part of continuous mill.

Two-tone - A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a difference in the work roll coating.

Type D - Base-metal steel, aluminum killed; sometimes required to minimize severe fluting and stretcher strain hazards for severe drawing applications.

Tack Welds - Small scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper alignment while the final welds are being made.

Tandem Mill - Arrangement of rolling mills, in direct line, allowing the metal to pass from one set of rolls into the next.

Tapping - Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle.

Tarnish - Surface discoloration on a metal, usually from a thin film of oxide or sulfide.

Teeming - Pouring metal into ingot molds.

Teeming - Pouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds. The term applies particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds.

Telescoping - Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of the coil is conical rather than flat.

Temper - (1) In heat treatment, re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. (2) In tool steels, temper is sometimes used, but inadvisedly, to denote the carbon content. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that cannot be hardened by heat treatment), the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure, mechanical properties, or reduction in area during cold working.

Temper Brittleness - A reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature in steels heated in, or slowly cooled through, the temperature range from about 700 to 1100 F (375 to 575 C).

Temper Brittleness - Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within, or are cooled slowly through, a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room temperature.

Temper Rolling - Light cold rolling of sheet steel. The operation is performed to improve flatness, to minimize the formation of stretcher strains, and to obtain a specified hardness or temper.

Tempering - Re-heating a quench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired.

Tempering - In heat treatment, re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel.

Tensile Strength - In tensile testing, the ratio of the maximum force sustained to the original cross-sectional area.

Tensile Strength - In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called ultimate strength.

Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength) - Breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. Usually measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine, gradually separating the jaws, and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons) per square inch of original cross section.

Ternary Alloy - An alloy that contains three principal elements.

Thermal Analysis - A method of studying transformations in metal by measuring the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur.

Thermocouple - A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar metals in contact; the junction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical potential with changes in temperature.

Three-Quarter Hard Temper - (A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175,000 T.S., 135,000 Y.S. min. (B) In Brass mill terminology, this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29.4% thickness reduction.

Tin Plate Base Box - A Tin Plate Base Box is measured in terms of pounds per Base Box (112 sheets 14 x 20) a unit peculiar to the tin industry. This corresponds to it's area of sheet totaling to 31.360 square inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate weighing from 55 to 275 pounds per base box. To convert to decimal thickness multiply weight per base box by .00011.

Tin Plating - Electroplating metal objects with tin; the object to be coated is made cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt.

Tinning - Coating with tin, commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electro-deposition; also by spraying.

Tolerance Limit - The permissible deviation from the desired value.

Tong Hold - The portion of a forging billet, usually on one end, that is gripped by the operator's tongs. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation. Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging.

Tool Steel - Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for use in the manufacture of tools.

Torsion - A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains.

Toughness - Property of resisting fracture or distortion. Usually measured by impact test, high impact values indicating high toughness.

Toughness - Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing.

Toughness - Ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. It is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test, but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness.

Trace - Extremely small quantity of an element, usually too small to determine quantitatively.

Transformation - A constitutional change in a solid metal, e.g., the change from gamma to alpha iron, or the formation of pearlite from austenite.

Transformation Range - Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes place.

Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges) - Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. The two ranges are distinct, sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature, particularly during cooling.

Transformation Temperature - The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. The following symbols are used for iron and steels: Ac(cm) In hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which the solution of cementite in austentite is completed during heating. Ac1 The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating. Ac3 The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. . Ac4 The temperature at which austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. . Ae(cm) Ae1 Ae3 Ae4 The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. . Ar(cm) In hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling. . Ar1 The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling. . Ar3 The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. . Ar4 The temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to austentie during cooling. . M(s) (or Ar) The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. . M(f) The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. .NOTE: All these changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during heating, and depend on the rate of change of temperature.

Transformation Temperature - The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. The following symbols are used: -A1-The temperature of the eutectoid transformation. -A3- The temperature at which pro-eutectiod ferrite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. . -Acm- The temperature at which pro-eutectoid cementite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. M(f)- The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite finishes during cooling. . M(s)-The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling.

Transformation Temperature - The temperature at which transformation occurs. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range.

Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature - An arbitrarily defined temperature that lies within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics (as usually determined by tests of notched specimens) change rapidly, such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to primarily cleavage.

Transverse - Literally, 'across', usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular to the direction of working.

Trepanning - A type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder.

Triple Point - The intersection of the boundaries of three adjoining grains, as observed in a section.

Troosite - Tempered martensite that etches rapidly, usually appears dark, and is not resolved by the microscope.

Tukon Hardness Test - A method for determining microhardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter.

Tumbling - Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.

Tungsten Carbide - Compound of tungsten and carbon, of composition varying between WC and W(2)C; imbedded in a matrix of soft metal, such as cobalt, extensively used for Sintered Carbide Tools.

Twin, Annealing - A twin produced as the result of heat treatment.

Twin, Crystal - A portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the lattice of the remainder of the crystal.

Twist - A winding departure from flatness.