C - Chemical symbol for carbon

CA - Chemical symbol for calcium

CAD - Computer Assisted Design. The use of computer programs to generate, analyse and modify designs. Extrusion dies and their supporting tools, for example, may be designed with the aid of computers.

CAM - Computer aided manufacturing

CNC - Computer numerically controlled-refers to machinery

Cadium - Chemical symbol Cd. Cadium is produced primarily as a by-product of zinc refining, but also is recovered during the benefication and refining of some lead ores and complex copper-zinc ores. Cadmium is bluish-white soft metal that can be cut with a knife. The principal use of cadmium, which was discovered in Germany in 1817, has been in nickel-cadmium batteries for personal, portable communications, electronic and electrical equipment. Other applications include pigments, coatings and plating, stabilizers for plastics and similar synthetics, alloys, lasers and solar cells.

Calcium - In the form of calcium silicide acts as a deoxidizer and degasifier when added to steel. Recent developments have found that carbon and alloy steels modified with small amounts of calcium show improved machinability and longer tool life. Transverse ductility and toughness are also enhanced.

Calcium Silicide - An alloy of Calcium, silicon, and iron containing 28-35% Ca, 60-65% Si, and 6% Fe, max., used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel and cast-iron; sometimes called calcium silicide.

Calcium Silicon - An alloy of calcium, silicon, and iron containing 28-35% Ca, 60-65% Si, and 6% Fe, max., used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel and cast-iron; sometimes called calcium silicide.

Calcium Wired Injection - Wire feeding of steel clad calcium wire into molten bath to provide favorable kinetics for inclusion modification.

Caliper - A deice used to measure inside or outside dimensions.

Caliper, Gear Tooth - A special caliper used to measure both the choral thickness and the depth of a gear tooth.

Cam - A device for converting regular rotary motion to irregular rotary or reciprocating motion. Sometime the effect of off-center lathe operations.

Camber - (1) Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line. (2) Sometimes used to denote crown in rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection cause by the rolling pressure.

Camber Tolerances - Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. Maximum allowable tolerance of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line are defined in ASTM Standards.

Camera Shutter Steel - Hardened, tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. Carbon content 1.25 - Chromium .15.

Can Dimensions - Can measurements are expressed in inches and sixteenths of inches in a kind of shorthand. The standard 12 ounce beverage can, for example, is described as 211 by 413, which translates to a 2 11/16 inches in diameter by 4 13/16 inched in height. When a two piece can is described as 211/209/413, this means 2 11/16 inches in diameter, necked in at the top to a 2 9/16 inches by a 4 13/16 inches in height.

Cannon Plug - Oil gun safety switch used when oil gun is out of boiler.

Capacity - Normal ability to produce steel in a given period. This rating should include maintenance requirements, but because such service is scheduled to match the machinerys needs (not the calendars), a mill might run at more than 100% of capacity one month and then fall well below rated capacity as maintenance is performed. Engineered capacity. The theorectical volume of a mill, given its constraints of raw material supply and normal working speed True Capacity. Volume at full utilization, allowing for the maintenance of equipment and reflecting current material constraints. (Bottlenecks of supply and distribution can change over time capacity will expand or reduce.)

Capped Steel - Semikilled steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap fitting into the neck of the mold. The cap causes to top metal to solidify. Pressure is built up in the sealed-in molten metal and results in a surface condition much like that of rimmed steel.

Carbide Tool bits - Lathe cutting tools to which carbide tip inserts have been brazed to provide cutting action on harder materials than the hight speed cutteres are capable of.

Carbon - Element occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbon reduces many metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly affect the properties of iron. Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, like boron, it is treated as a metal.

Carbon Dioxide Process (Silicate Process, Schmidt Philip Process - A process for hardening molds or cores in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through dry clay-free silica sand to precipitate silica in the form of a gel from the sodium silicate binder.

Carbon Equivalent - Referring to the rating of weld-ability, this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. For rating of weld-ability, a formula commonly used is: CE 3D C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15].

Carbon Filter - A unit containing a media of activated carbon to remove organic impurities and residual chlorine from the water.

Carbonitriding A process of case hardening a ferrous material in a gaseous atmosphere containing both carbon and nitrogen -

Carbon Sand - A molding aggregate consisting principally of carbon (graphite) granules.

Carbon Steel - Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidization, with silicon usually limited to 0.60% and manganese to about 1.65%. Also termed plain carbon steel, ordinary steel, and straight carbon steel.

Carbon, Combined - The carbon in iron or steel which is combined with other elements and therefore is not in the free state as graphite or as temper carbon.

Carbonitriding A process of case hardening a ferrous material in a gaseous atmosphere containing both carbon and nitrogen - NULL

Carbonizing - Thr process of adding carbon the the outer surface of steel to improve its quality by heat treating it in contact with carbonaceous material.

Carborundum - A trade name for an abrasive compounded of silicon and carbon (silicon carbide).

Carburizing - Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with a suitable carbonaceous material, which may be a solid, liquid, or gas. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened.

Cardboard Drum - Cardboard insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil.

Carriage - A belt mounted on wheels that is used to move materials from one storage bin to another.

Case - The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been suitably altered in composition and can be made substantially harder than the interior or core by heat treatment.

Case Hardening - Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion, or case, is made substantially harder than the inner portion, or core. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing, cyaniding, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction hardening, and flame hardening.

Casing - The structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells and account for 75% (by weight) of OCTG shipments. Casing is used to prevent contamination of both the surrounding water table and the well itself. Casing lasts the life of a well and is not

Cast - (1) A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast Spring Steel Wire. (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire, the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set.

Cast-Weld - "Welding one casting to another to form a complete unit. "

Castigated Nut (Castle Nut) - A nut with grooves cut entirely across the top face.

Casting - (1) An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold. (2) Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape.

Casting Alloy - An alloy formulated for casting

Casting Drawing - An engineering drawing which depicts the shape and size of a part to be cast.

Casting Layout - A check of dimensions against applicable drawings and specifications.

Casting Yield - The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of metal poured into the mold, expressed as a percent.

Cathead - A collar or sleeve which fits loosely over a shaft to which it is clamped by setscrews.

Cathode - Primary non-ferrous metal casting to be rolled or forged into other shapes; usually copper or nickel.

Cathodic Sodium Dichromate - A common treatment applied to passivate the surface of electroytic tin plate against the formation of tin oxides.

Caustic - An alkaline solution used to neutralize the acid in the discharge water from the scrubbers when it goes to the sewer.

Cavitation - The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation. That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage.

Cavity - The impression in either the upper or lower die.

Cb - Chemical symbol for columbium

Ce - Chemical symbol for cerium

Cell - In aluminum production the electrolytic reduction cell, commonly called a pot in which alumina dissolved in molten cryloite is reduced to metallic aluminum. A series of cells connected electrically is called a pot line.

Cells - Plastic tanks that contain anodes and plater solution. The strip goes through the cells during the coating process.

Center - A point or axis around which anything evloves or rotates. In the lathe, one of the parts upon which the work to be turned is placed. The center in the headstock is referred to as the live center and the one mounted in the tailstock as the dead center.

Center, Dead - A center that does not rotate;commonly found on the tailstock of a lathe. Also, an expression for the exact center of an object.

Center Drill - A combined countersink and ddrill used to prepare work for mounting centers.

Center Gage - A small flat gage having 60 degree angles that is used for grinding and setting the thread cutting tools in a lathe. It may also be used to check the pitch of threads and the points of center.

Center, Half Male - A dead center that has a portion of the 60 degree cone cut away.

Center Head - A part of combination square set that is used to find the center of or to bisect a round or square workpiece.

Center, Live - A center that revolves with the work. Generally this is the headstock center; however, the ball bearing type tailstock center is also called a live center.

Center, Punch - A pointed hand tool made of hardened steel and shaped somewhat like a pencil.

Centering Arms - In ring rolling, externally mounted rolls, adjusted to the outside diameter of the ring during rolling. The rolls maintain and guide the ring in a centerline position to achieve.

Cementation - (1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high-carbon tool steels, prior to the introduction of the bessemer and open-hearth methods.

Cementite - A compound of iron and carbon commonly known as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical structure, Fe3C. Cementite is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure.

Center Buckle - A condition in the band of steel where the center (in the direction of rolling) is longer than the edges and has a wave or buckle.

Ceramic - A new type of cutting tool material made of aluminum oxide or silicon carbide that is finding increased use where high speed and resistance to high temperatures and weaar are factors.

Cermet - A powder metallurgy product consisting of ceramic particles bonded with metal

Cesium - Chemical Cs. A silver-white metal refined from pollucite ore, usually as a co-product in the processing of titanium, beryllium, or lithium minerals. Cesium ignites when exposed to air; has a 28.5 degree F melting point; used in making specialized energy converters and electric power generators.

Chain Gearing (Chain Drive) - Power transmission by means of an endless chain running around chain wheels (chain pully) and/or sprocket wheels.

Chamfer - (1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. (2) A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner.

Chaplet - A sma;; metal imsert or spacer used in molds to provide core support during the casting process.

Charge - To "charge" the BA furnace refers to the process of lighting or firing the furnace. This process involved turning on the pilot gas, turning on the main gas, and then using a torch to light the pilot light so that the temperature of the furnace begins to rise to the desired "cooking or soak" temperature.

Charging Whistle - A warning sound to personnel that production is charging a vessel with scrap and hot metal. It also alerts personnel to prepare the scrubber to switch from oil fire operation to steel-making operation.

Charpy Impact Test - A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fracture, as impact strength or notch toughness.

Chasing Threads - Cutting threads in a lathe or srew machine.

Chatter - A surface defect consisting of alternating ridges and valleys at right angles to the direction of extrusion.

Chatter Mark - (Defect)- Parallel indentaions or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.

Chattering - A coating defect consisting of the washboard appearance of the cured film with variations of color or opacity. "Gear marks" is another synonym when the defect is caused by the gear lash of the coating machine. Chattering occurs when the coating machine permits the uneven application of the coating.

Checking - A coating defect consisting of the cracking of the cured film into small segments, with hairline cracks separating the segments. The similar defects of mud cracking or alligatoring are the same as checking, but they are larger. Crazing is a synonymous term.

Chemical Treatment - 1) (Chem. Treat) A customer-specified rust inhibitor applied to the coated product. 2) A passivating chemical treatment normally applied to the steel surface to control oxide formation and growth.

Chemically Brightened - A chemical addition made to the plating bath that results in a coating with a bright appearance as opposed to the mechanically brightened surface appearance .

Chemistries - The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements.

Chill - A metal insert in the sand mold used to produce local chilling and equalize rate of solidification throughout the casting.

Chip Breaker - Asmall groove ground back of the cutting edge on the top of a cutting tool to keep the chips short.

Chipping - A method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be worked into the finished product. Chipping is often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing.

Chisel - A hydraulic coil opener used for preparing the front end of a coil before loading it into the feeder.

Chop - A die forging defect; metal sheared from a vertical surface and spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface.

Chromium - A steel-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metallic element that takes its name from the Greek word for color--chrome--because of the brilliant colors of its compounds. It is found primarily in chromite. Resistant to tarnish and corrosion, it is a primary component of stainless steel and is used to harden steel alloys.

Chromium-Nickel Steel - Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.

Chuck - A device on a machine tool to hold the workpiece or a cutting tool.

Chuck, Independent Jaw - A chuck, each of whose jaws (ususlly four) is adjusted with a screw action independantly of the other jaws.

Chuck, Universal (self-centering chuck, concentric chuck) - A chuck whose jaws are so arranged that they are all moved together at the same rate by a special wrench.

Cigarette Knife Steel - Hardened, tempered and bright polished, 1.25 Carbon content- Chromium .15. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Usual sizes are 4 3/4 wide and 6 wide x .004 to .010.

Circored(r) - "WHAT A gas-based process developed by Lurgi Metallurgie in Germany to produce DRI or HBI (see Direct Reduced Iron and Hot Briquetted Iron). HOW The two-stage method yields fines with a 93% iron content. Iron ore fines pass first through a circulating fluidized-bed reactor, and subsequently through a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor. "

Circular Pitch - The distance measured on the pitch circle from a point on a gear tooth to the same point on the next gear tooth.

Circumferences - Bands wrapped around the outside of the coil.

Circumscribing circle - The smallest circle that will completely enclose the cross section of an extruded shape.

Cladding - A process for covering one metal with another. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling.

Clarification Tank - A water filled settling tank used to remove particulate from the water off the scrubbers at the Blast Furnace.

Clarifiers - A unit that removes solids for clarification of the raw river water. It is aided by injecting polyelectrolyte and ferric for coagulation, caustic for stabilization of pH, and chlorine for removal of bacteria. Sludge is discharged and clear effluent sent on through the water plant.

Class 1 Surface Quality - A class of cold rolled steel processed to meet requirements for controlled surface texture, flatness, and temper requirements. Produced for exposed applications.

Cleaning - The process of removing scale, oxides, or lubricant-acquired during heating for forging or heat treating from the surface of the forging. (also see Blasting, Pickling, tumbling)

Cleaning Tank - This section of the plater is used to remove dirt, oil, grease, oxides and other contaminates from the surface of material to be electroplated. A cleaning agent is used at a temperature of 180-190 degrees.

Cleanliness - For internal steel quality, a measure of the size and frequency of inclusions; for external steel surface quality, a measure of the amount of extraneous materials (such as dirt, iron particles, carbon, etc.) on the steel surface.

Clearance - (1)The gap between two mating parts; (2) the space provided between the relief of a cutting tool and the surface being cut.

Clearance Angle - The angle between the rear surface of a cutting tool and the surface of the work at the point of contact.

Climb illing - A method of milling in which the work table moves in the same direction as the direction of rotation of the milling center. Sometimes called down cutting or down milling.

Clip - Metal device used to hold the ends of steel strapping (bands) together.

Clutch, Friction (friction coupling) - A shaft coupling used where it is necessary to provide a connection that can be readily engaged or disengaged while on of the shafts is in motion.

CMF - Cast Metals Federation

CMM - Coordinate Measuring Machine.

CNC - Computer Numerical Controlled Machine Tools.

Co - Chemical symbol for colbalt.

Coal Filter - A filter which contains a bed of anthracite media material used to remove contaminants, mud, and debris from the river water as part of the feed water treatment process.

Coalescence - 1) the growth of particles of a dispersed phase by solution and reprecipitation, 2) the growth of grains by absorption of adjacent undistorted grains.

Coated Metals - Sheet and strip steel or aluminum, usually in coil form, which has been covered on one or both sides with paint,enamel, adhesive, anti-corrosive coatings, and/or laminates.

Coating - The process of covering steel with another material (for example tin, chrome, and zinc), primarily for corrosion resistance.

Coating Test - Performed by the Metallurgical Lab to check the amount of coating applied.

Coating Weight - 1) In the Sheet Mill, the amount of Zinc on a galvanized sheet measured in ounces per square foot. 2) Specified in pounds (or parts thereof) of tin coating per base box. This term is often misunderstood because in most cases the decimal point is omitted when written or printed.

Coating Weight Test - A test of the weight of the coating measured 2 inches from each side of the strip and at the center.

Cobalt - Blue-white metal, melting at 2715 B0F (1492 B0C), used in very hard alloy such as stellite, and a binder in carbide cutting tools.

Colbalt-Based Superalloys - Eight specific alloys of at least 50% cobalt blended with traces of such other metals as iron,nickel,chrome,titanium,tungsten,carbom,zirconium, and/or tantalum; used in high-temperature,high-strength,anti-corrosion applications (such as aircraft gas turbines and jet engine components).

Cobbles - Strip of steel which, during processing, does not go through line evenly, begins piling up - looks like ribbon candy.

Cocoon Process - A method of protecting metal parts by spraying on a cover of plastic filaments.

Code - In EDP, a system of symbols and their use in representing rules for handling the flow or processing of information.

Code Holes - The information holes in perforated tape, as opposed to feed or sprocket holes.

Coefficient of thermal expansion - The relative rate at which a substance expands on heating, compared to a standard rate.

Cog - A tooth in the rim of a wheel-a gear tooth in a gear wheel.

Cogging - The reducing operation in working the ingot into a billet by the use of forging hammer or a forging press.

Cohesion - The force by which like particles are held together. It varies with different metals and depends upon molecular arrangement due to heat treatment.

Coil - A length of steel wound into roll-form.

Coil Car - Unit that the coil sits on. Used to move a coil to the entry or from the delivery.

Coil End - ID of a coil that is left because of a defect. Ranging from 500 - 10,000 pounds. Anything 10,000 pounds and over get an IPM. A coil with a weight less than 5000 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications is called a salvage coil. These coils do not get an IPM number

Coil Line Markings - been placed on the strip by the platers. This mark serves as an indication to the feeder that the placement of the coil on the entry reel must be placed correctly to meet customer specifications (external customers request this mark to distinguish coating on the strip). The Feeder must refer to the scheduling book to determine how to place the coil on the entry reel for over or under wind.

Coil Number - Produced IPM Number assigned to a coil. IPM (In Process Material) Number.

Coil Set - A curvature of the strip in the lengthwise sense, parallel to the direction in which the strip was rolled or uncoiled.

Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl - A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. A departure from longitudinal flatness. Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.

Coil Stripper - A piece of equipment on the off-gauge reel used to help remove a coil from the reel.

Coils - Steel sheet that has been wound. A slab, once rolled in a hot-strip mill, is more than one-quarter mile long; coils are the most efficient way to store and transport sheet steel.

Coining - The process of applying necessary pressure to all or some portion of the surface of a forging to obtain closer tolerances or smoother surfaces or to eliminate draft. Coining can be done while forgings are hot or cold and is usually performed on surfaces parallel to the parting of the forging.

Coke - Carbonizing coal made in oven by driving off volatile elements. It is a hard porous substance that is principally pure carbon. In blast furnaces, coke helps generate the 3000 F. temperatures and reducing gases needs to smelt iron ore.

Coke Bed - First layer of coke placed in the cupola. Also the coke as the foundation in constructing a large mold in a flask or pit.

Coke Breeze - Fines from coke screening, used in blacking mixes after grinding; also briquetted for cupola use.

Coke Breeze - Fine screens that come from Blast Furnace coke and are used to make sinter.

Coke Furnace - Type of pot or crucible furnace using coke as the fuel.

strong>Coke Oven Battery - A set of ovens that process coal into coke. Coke ovens are constructed in batteries of 10 D1100 ovens that are 20 feet tall, 40 feet long, and less than two feet wide. Coke batteries, because of the exhaust fumes emitted when coke is pushed from the ovens, often are the dirtiest area of a steel mill complex.

Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate) - Standard tin plate, with the lightest commercial tin coat, used for food containers, oil canning, etc. A higher grade is the best cokes, with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. For high qualities and heavier coatings.

Coke Porosity - The percentage volume of cell space in coke.

Coke, Beehive - Coke produced from a bituminous coal by the beehive process where heat for the coking process comes from a partial combustion of the coke. Generally characterized by an elongate stringy structure.

Coke, By-Product - Coke produced from bituminous coal in airtight code ovens where heat for coking process is externally applied. Generally more uniform in size than beehive coke, and usually ball or cube shape.

Coke, Petroleum - Residue left from the distillation of petroleum crude, used as a carbon raiser.

Cold Chamber Machine - A diecasting machine where the metal chamber and plunger are not immersed in hot metal.

Cold Chamber, Club Sandwich, Two-Faced, Three-Piece Die - A diecasting die in which two different pieces are cast in two widely separated cavities.

Cold Coined forging - A forging that has been re-struck cold in order to hold closer face distance tolerances, sharpen corners or outlines, reduces section thickness, flatten some particular surface, or in non-heat treatable alloys, increase hardness.

Cold Cracking - Cracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction. Often brought about when the mold is to hard or casting is of unsuitable design

Cold Drawing - The process of reducing the cross sectional area of wire,bar or tube by drawing the material through a die without any pre-heating. Cold drawing is used for the production of bright steel bar in round square, hexagonal and flat section. The process changes the mechanical properties of the steel and the finished product is accurate to size,free from scale with a bright surface finish.

Cold-Finished Steel Bars - Hot-rolled carbon steel bars after secondary cold-reduction processing with better surface quality and strength.

Cold Finishing - The cold finishing of steel, generally used for bars and shafting, may be defined as the process of reducing their cross sectional area, without heating, by one of five methods Cold Rolling 2. Cold Drawing 3. Cold drawing and Grinding 4. Turning and polishing 5. Turning and Grinding

Cold Inspection - A visual (usually final) inspection of the forgings for visual defects, dimensions, weight and surface conditions at room temperature. The tern may also be used to describe certain nondestructive tests, such as magnetic particle, dye penetrant and sonic inspection.

Cold Lap - Wrinkled markings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient freezing of the surface.

Cold Reduction Mill - Sheet and strip are cold reduced to the desired thickness for the following reasons 1) To obtain the desired surface. 2) To impart desired mechanical properties. 3) To make gauges lighter than the hot strip mill can produce economically. 4) To produce sheet and strip of more uniform thickness.

Cold Roll Base - Coils that are cold worked or reduced to gauge on the tandem mill.

Cold Rolled Sheet - A product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pickled) coils by cold reducing to the desired thickness, generally followed by annealing and temper rolling. If the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it is known as full hard. (See Full Hard Cold Rolled).

Cold Rolling - Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening). Same as cold reduction, except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers, which see.

Cold Rolling (Cold-Reducing) - Rolling of cooled metal sheet (or other form which previously has been hot-rlled) t make the steel thinner,smoother and stronger by applying pressure. A cold-reduction sheet mill, for example, will roll-press a sheet of metal from one-quarter inch into less than an eighth of an inch, while more than doubling its length.

Cold Rolling Mill - A mill that reduces the cross sectional area of the metal by rolling at approximately room temperature.

Cold Screens - A screening device that removes sinter that is smaller than five millimeters in diameter before it goes to the Blast Furnace.

Cold Setting Binders - Term used to describe any binder that will harden the core sufficiently at room temperature so core can be removed from its box without distortion; commonly used in reference to oil-oxygen type binders.

Cold Setting Process - An of several systems for bonding mold or core aggregates by means of organic binders, relying upon the use of catalysts rather than heat for polymerization (setting).

Cold Short - A characteristic of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low temperatures.

Cold Shot - Small globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the casting.

Cold Shut - A defect characterized by a fissure or lap on the surface of a forging that has been closed without fusion during the forging operation. folding of the surface. It may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded edges. Also see Cold Lap

Cold Stack - Exhaust stack located at the BOP Scrubber. The Boiler Operator monitors the emissions through the cold stack.

Cold Strip Mill - A mill that rolls strip without first reheating.

Cold Treatment - Exposing steel to suitable subzero temperatures (-85C, or -120F) for the purpose of obtaining desired conditions or properties such as dimensional or microstructural stability. When the treatment involves the transformation of retained austenite, it is usually followed by tempering.

Cold Work - Plastic deformation at such temperatures and rates that substantial increases occur in the strength and hardness of the metal visible structural changes include changes in grain shape and, in some instances, mechanical twinning or banding.

Cold Working - Plastic deformation, such as rolling, hammering, drawing, etc., at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening). Commonly, the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures.

Cold-Box Process - 1) Any core binder process that uses a gas or vaporized catalyst to cure a coated sand while it is in contact with the core box at room temperature.

Cold-Rolled Strip (Sheet) - Sheet steel that has been pickled and run through a cold-reduction mill. Strip has a final product width of approximately 12 inches, while sheet may be more than 80 inches wide. Cold-rolled sheet is considerably thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet, so it will sell for a premium (see Sheet Steel).

Cold-rolling - (CR)Rolling steel without first reheating it. This process reduces thickness of the steel, produces a smoother surface and makes it easier to machine.

Collapsed Reel - A mandrel in the collapsed position.

Collapsibity - The requirement that a sand mixture break down under the pressure and temperatures developed during casting, in order to avoid hot tears or facilitate the separation of the sand and the casting.

Collapsible Sprue - A sprue pattern of flexible material, or of spring-tube design, used in squeeze-molding of plated patterns, and incorporating a pouring cup.

Collate - 1) to merge items from two or more similarly sequenced files into one sequenced file, 2) to compare one thing critically with another of the same kind.

Collector Main - The duct work used for moving air from the sinter machine to the fans.

Collet - A precision work holding chuck which centers finished round stock automatically when tightened. Specialized collets are also available in shapes for other than round stock.

Collimator - A device for confining the elements of a beam of radiation within an assigned solid angle.

Colloidal Clay - Finely divided clay of montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite class; prepared for foundry purposes as in sand bonding.

Colloids, Colloidal Material - Finely divided material less than 0.5 micron (0.00002 in.) in size, such as albumin, glue, starch, gelatin, and bentonite.

Coloimetric Analysis - Determining the amount of an element in a solution by measuring the intrinsic color.

Color Etching - A micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite compound of the metal.

Color Method - A technique of heat treating metal by observing the color changes that occur to determine the proper operation to perform to achieve the desired results.

Columbium - Chemical symbol Co. Refractory metal used as an alloying agent in steel making; essential for high-strength,low-alloy grades. Has some worked metal applications, mostly alloyed with zirconium or titanium for aerospace applications. CalledNiobium (Nb) everywhere but the U.S.

Columnar Structure - A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is caused by highly directional solidification.

Combination Die (Multiple-Cavity Die) - In die casting, a die with two or more different cavities for different castings.

Combination Square - A drafting and layout tool combining a square,level, protractor and a center head.

Combined Carbon - Carbon in iron and steel which is combined chemically with other elements; not in the free state as graphitic or temper carbon.

Combined Water - That water in mineral matter which is chemically combined and driven off only at temperatures above 231 B0F (111 B0C).

Combustion - Chemical change as a result of the combination of the combustible constituents of the fuel with oxygen, producing heat.

Combustion Air Flow - The measured and controlled amount of air flow delivered to a boiler to promote proper combustion.

Combustion Chamber - Space in furnace where combustion of gaseous products from fuel takes place.

Commercial Bronze - A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc; used for screws, wire, hardware, etc. Although termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility.

Commercial Quality Steel Sheet - Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at 0.15 max. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet.

Commercial Tolerance - A range by which a product's specifications can deviate from those ordered and still meet the industry accepted ranges (defined in ASTM Standards, etc.)

Comodizing - A rust-proofing process for steel.

Composite alloy - An aluminum alloy containing relatively large amounts of two or more other elements.

Composite Construction - "Welding a steel casting to a rolled or forged steel object or to another casting. See Cast-Weld "

composite joint - A joint that is both welded and joined mechanically.

Composite Material - A combination of two or more materials (reinforcing elements,fillers and composite matrix binder), differing in forms or composition on a macroscale. The constituents retain their identities,that is, they do not dissolve or merge completley into one another although they act in concert. Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between one another. Examples are cermets and metal-matrix composites.

Compund (rest) - The part of a lathe set on the carriage that carries the tool post and holder. It is designed to swing in any direction and to provide feed for turning short angles or tapers.

Compression Test - Imposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per sq. in.

Compressive Strength - The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of developing, based on original area of cross section. In the case of a material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength has a very definite value. In the case of materials which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture, the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material.

Concave - A curved depression in the surface of an object.

Concentric - Accurately centered or having a common center.

Conductivity - The ability of a substance to transmit heat, light, or electricity. Aluminum has high electrical and thermal conductivity, making it useful in a wide range of electrical and heat-exchanging applications.

Cone Pulley - A one-piece stepped pully having two or more diameters.

Consumption - Measures the physical use of steel by end users. Steel consumptionm estimates, unlike steel demand figures, account for changes in inventories. Apparent Supply. Derived demand for steel using AISI reported steel mill shipments plus Census Bureau reported imports, less Census Bureau reported exports. Domestic market share percentages are based on this figure, which does not take into account any changes in inventory.

Contact Corrosion - When two disimiliar metals are in contact without a protective barrier between them and they are in the presence of liquid, an electrolytic cell is created. The degree of corrosion is dependent on the area in cantact and the electro-potential voltage of the metals concerned. The less noble of the metals is liable to be attacked, i.e. zinc will act as a protector of steel in sea water wheras copper or brass wo;; attack the steel in the same enviroment.

Contact Printing (Ink Print) - "A method of recording details of a macroetched structure. See Sulfur Prints. "

Contact Rolls - Metal rolls that are used in the chem. treat area. Electricity goes through these rolls.

Container - In extrusion: The strong chamber in a extrusion press that holds the billett while it is extruded through a die at one end, under pressure from a ram entering at the other end.

Contamination - 1) Radioactive deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not desired, and particularly in any place where its presence may be harmful. The harm may be in vitiating the validity of an experiment or a procedure, or in actually being a source of danger to personnel, 2) presence of small percentages of deleterious elements in an alloy adversely affecting the alloy's mechanical properties and/or casting soundness.

Contango - Market condition where the spot price is less than the three-month delivery price. This is considered the "normal" market state because the costs of storing and shipping metal are assumed to be higher in three months than at present (See Backwardation).

Continuous Casting - A method of producing blooms,billets and slabs in long lengths using water cooled moulds. The castings are continuously withdrawn through the bottom of the caster whilst the teeming of the metal is proceeding. The need for primary and intermediate mills and the storage and use of large numbers of ingot moulds is eliminated. The continuous casting process is also used in the production of cast iron, aluminium and copper alloys.

Continuous Tapping - A furnace or holding ladle that is made of discharge molten metal continuously during normal operation.

Continuous Anneal - A process by which the steel is rapidly heated, soaked and cooled at a confirmed rate by passing the coil at a relatively high speed through a furnace consisting of numerous sections.

Continuous Annealing Furnace - Furnace in which castings are annealed or heat treated by passing through different zones at constant temperatures.

Continuous Blow Down - (Continuous Concentration) The process of removing undesired solids from the boiler feed water at the upper drum by means of a skimming header. Chemical analysis of the blow down establishes treatment needs and helps maintain optimum feed water quality.

Continuous Casting - "WHAT A method of pouring steel directly from the furnace into a billet, bloom, or slab directly from its molten form. WHY Continuous casting avoids the need for large, expensive mills for rolling ingots into slabs. Continuous cast slabs also solidify in a few minutes versus several hours for an ingot. Because of this, the chemical composition and mechanical properties are more uniform. HOW Steel from the BOF or electric furnace is poured into a tundish (a shallow vessel that looks like a bathtub) atop the continuous caster. As steel carefully flows from the tundish down into the water-cooled copper mold of the caster, it solidifies into a ribbon of red-hot steel. At the bottom of the caster, torches cut the continuously flowing steel to form slabs or blooms. "

Continuous Casting - A process that continuously casts molten steel into a semifinished product such as slab. It bypasses the traditional process of pouring (teeming) molten steel into ingots, reheating those ingots, and then rolling them into semifinished steel shapes.

Continuous Desulfurization - A process of removing sulfur from molten ferrous alloys on a continuous basis.

Continuous Strip Mill - A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass.

Continuous Variable Crown System - (C.V.C. System ) Hydraulic system that supplies the force to all the cylinders associated with work-roll balance and bending and back-up roll balance (also supplies force for work roll shifting).

Continuous Weld - Continuously welding one coil to another at the entry end and splitting off coils of a specific weight at delivery end.

Contract Sales - Steel products committed to customers through price agreements extending 3-12 months. About one-half of all flat-rolled steel is sold on this basis, primarily because the auto companies sign agreements to cover at least one year's model. Price increases that the steel mills might announce during the year do not generally affect the revenues from the contract side of the business.

Contraction - The volume change occurring in metals (except antimony and bismuth) and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature.

Contraction Cracks - "Cracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification (called a hot tear) or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold. See Hot Tears "

Contraction Rule - See Shrinkage, Patternmaker's

Control Stool - Stool used to monitor the annealing temperature and gas stream. A probe is inserted into the test area, and readings are taken to determine the quality of the annealing process.

Controlled Atmosphere - Any gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards oxidation and decarburization.

Controlled Cooling - See Cooling, Controlled

Controllers - Devices that are used to control the flow of the water and gas in the sinter machine as well as to control the louvers on the fans.

Contour - The outling of an object.

Convection - The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. In heat transmission, this meaning has been extended to include both forced and natural motion or circulation.

Conventional forging - A forging characterized by design complexity and tolerances that fall within the broad range of general forging practice.

Conversion Cost - Resources spent to process material in a single stage, from one type to another. The costs of converting iron ore to hot metal or pickling hot-rolled coil can be isolated for analysis.

Converter/Processor - Demand from steel customers such as rerollers and tube makers, which process steel into a more finished state, such as pipe, tubing and cold-rolled strip, before selling it to end users. Such steel generally is not sold on contract, making the converter segment of the mills' revenues more price sensitive than their supply contracts to the auto manufacturers.

Convery, Vibratory - A materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow. Operations with vibrational energy.

Convex - The curved surface of a cylindet as a sphere when viewed from without.

Conveyor - A mechanical apparatus for carrying or transporting materials from place to place. Types include apron, belt, chain, gravity, roller, monorail, overhead, pneumatic, vibrating, etc.

Conveyor Belt - A continuously moving belt used in an automated or semiautomatic foundry to move materials from one station to another.

Conveyor Screw - Rotary worm-type blade used to move materials in automated core and mold making and other continuous sand-mixing operations.

Conveyor, Pallet - A materials-handling device that holds one or more molds and transports them from the molding station through pouring to shakeout.

Conveyor, Pneumatic Tube - An air-tube means of moving materials from on place to another, primarily orders, light metal samples, and sand and other finely divided materials, as bentonite.

Conveyor, Roller - A line of conveyance in an automated or semiautomated foundry which employs a series of steel roller for moving objects.

Conveyor, Slat - A materials-handling device built on a continuous belt of metal slats that moves granular materials and castings throughout a foundry.

Cook (Anneal) Hours - The number of hours the coils will be heated in the furnace. Also referred to as soak time.

Coolant - A cimmon term given to the numerous cutting fluids or compounds used with cutting tools to increase the tool life and to improve surface finish on the material.

Cooler - The largest of three water coolers surrounding the cinder notch of a blast furnace.

Cooler Machine - A machine used to cool sinters before placing them on the conveyor belt.

Cooling Cover - A cylindrical cover which is placed over the coils and the heat cover once the furnace is removed. This cover contains a fan that aids in the cooling of the coils. The North Anneal has one cooling cover.

Cooling Curve - A curve showing the relationship between time and temperature during the solidification and cooling of a metal sample. Since most phase changes involve evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of the curve.

Cooling Fin - See Cracking Strip

Cooling Lines - The water lines that go to the bearings on a pump to keep the bearings cool.

Cooling Tower - 1) The heat exchanger and everything associated with it that removes the heat from the coolant used in the cooling system. This device is located outdoors. 2) Tower in the Sheet Mill that suspends the strip that allows the zinc to cool and dry before the strip contacts any rolls.

Cooling Unit - Consists of the cooler and all the devices needed for the cooler's operation.

Cooling Water - Water that keeps the packing cool on the circulator and feed water pumps.

Cooling, Controlled - A process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage

Cope - Upper or topmost section of a flask, mold or pattern.

Cope, False - Temporary cope used only in forming the parting and therefore not a part of the finished mold

Coping Out - The extension of sand of the cope downward into the drag, where it takes an impression of a pattern.

Copper - Chemical symbol Cu) Element No. 29 of the periodic system, atomic weight 63.57. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster, highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity; melting point 1981 (degrees) F.; boiling point 4327 F.; specific gravity 8.94. Unibersally and extensively used in the arts in brasses, bronzes. Universally used in the pure state as sheet, tube, rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals.

Copper cake - A by-product of electolytic zinc refining, usually containing a fair amount of cobalt.

Copper, Electrolytic - Copper produced by the electrolysis method.

Corbel - One or more projecting courses of brick each projecting beyond the course below.

Core - The softer interior portion of an alloy piece that has been surface (case) hardened; or, that portion of a forging removed by trepanning or punching.

Core Assembly - Putting together a complex core made of a number of sections.

Core Barrel - Pipe-shaped device upon which a cylindrical core is formed.

Core Binder - Any material used to hold the grains of core sand together.

Core Blow - A gas pocket in a casting adjacent to a core cavity caused by entrapping gases from the core.

Core Box, Combination - Core box and core dryers from the same pattern. One half is used as a half core box and a core drier.

Core Branch - Part of a core assembly.

Core Breaker - A machine for crushing cores or for removing cores from castings.

Core Cavity - The interior form of a core box that gives shape to the core. Also, the cavity produced in a casting by use of a core.

Core Collapsibility - The rate of disintegration of the core at elevated temperature.

Core Compound - A commercial mixture used as a binder in core sand.

Core Crab - An iron framework embedded in a large core to stiffen it and for convenience in handling.

Core Density - 1) Permeability of core or 2) weight per unit volume.

Core Driers - Supports used to hold cares in shape while being baked; constructed from metals or sand for conventional baking, or from plastic material for use with dielectric core-baking equipment.

Core Extruder - A special shell-core-making machine that produces a continuous length of cores, usually of cylindrical cross-section.

Core Filler - Material used in place of sand in the interiors of large cores - coke, cinder, sawdust, etc., usually added to aid collapsibility.

Core Fin - A casting defect, a depression in the casting caused by a fin on the core that was not removed before the core was set, or by paste that has oozed out from between the joints.

Core Float - A casting defect caused by core movement towards the cope surface of the mold, as a result of core buoyancy in liquid steel, resulting in a deviation from the intended wall thickness.

Core Frame - Frame of skeleton construction used instead of a complete core box in forming intermediate and large cores.

Core Grinder - Machine for grinding a taper on the end of a cylindrical core or to grind a core to a specified dimension, usually flat face.

Core Gum - A pitch material used as a core binder.

Core Hardness - The ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion.

Core Jig - A device for setting core assemblies outside of the mold and placing the whole assembly in the mold.

Core Knockout Machine - A mechanical device for removing cores from castings.

Core Lightener - A core material of any size and shape used to lighten pattern castings and match plates.

Core Maker - A core seat so shaped or arranged that the core will register correctly in the mold; also termed locator, indicator, register, telltale.

Core Mud - A daubing mixture used to correct defect in cores.

Core Prints - Portions of a pattern that locate and anchor the core in the proper position in the sand.

Core Refractiveness - The ability of a core to resist breakdown when exposed to heat.

Core Rod - A wire or rod of steel used to reinforce and stiffen the core.

Core Sand - Sand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. Usually low in clays.

Core Setting Jig - A device used to help set a core into the mold.

Core Setting Jig/Gage - A device used to help position a core in the mold.

Core Shift - A variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling.

Core Shooter - A device using low air pressure to fluidize the sand mix which is released quickly in such a way as to force it into a core box.

Core Spindle - A shaft on which a core barrel is rotated in making cylindrical cores.

Core Sprayer - A device for spraying a coating on cores.

Core Stickle Template (Sweep) - Device of wood or metal to give shape to certain types of cores or molds.

Core Strainer (Strainer Tub) - Baked sand or refractory disc with uniform size holes through its thickness used to control the discharge of metal from pouring basins into sprues or to regulate the flow of metal in gates systems of molds; also to prevent entrance of dross or slag into the mold cavity.

Core Truck - Truck or carriage used for transporting cores.

Core Vents - 1) holes made in the core for escape of gas. 2) A metal screen or slotted piece used to form the vent passage in the core box employed in a core-blowing machine. 3) A wax product, round or oval in form, used to form the vent passage in a core.

Core Wires or Rolls - See Core Rod

Core-Baking Dielectric - Heating cores to baking temperatures by means of high-frequency dielectric equipment; particularly adapted to thermo-setting resin core binders.

Core-Mading Machine - A device to make cores.

Coreless Induction Furnace - See Induction Furnace

Coremaker - A craftsman skilled in the production of cores for foundry use.

Corer, Sag - A decrease in the height of a core, usually accompanied by an increase in width, as a result of insufficient green strength of the sand to support its own weight.

Coreroom - Department of the foundry in which cores are made.

COREX(r) - COREX is a coal-based smelting process that yields hot metal or pig iron. The output can be used by integrated mills or EAF mills. HOWThe process gasifies non-coking coal in a smelting reactor, which also produces liquid iron. The gasified coal is fed into a shaft furnace, where it removes oxygen from iron ore lumps, pellets or sinter; the reduced iron is then fed to the smelting reactor. "

Coring Up - Placement of cores chills, and chaplets in mold halves before closing the mold.

Corners - Four corners on each boiler where the oil guns and the oil and steam auto valves for the oil guns are located.

Cornerslick (inside and Outside Corners) - A molder's tool used for repairing and slicking the sand in molds. Used primarily on Dry sand and loam.

Corrective Effective Temperature Chart - A chart on which information can be plotted resulting in an adjustment temperature reading more indicative of human comfort.

Corrective Leveling - Capability of a leveling machine to remove or reduce shape defects across the strip, coil, or sheet, in addition to flattening lengthwise curvatures. Generally employs 17 to 23 small diameter rolls with adjustable back ups for varying nest across face of machine.

Corrosion - 1) Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents, 2) chemical attack of furnace linings by gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.

Corrosion Embrittlement - The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack.

Corrosion Index - A number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.

Corrosion Resistance - The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by corrosion. This ability can be enhanced by application of "special" coatings on the surface of the material.

Corrosion Wear - Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.

Corrugated - As a defect. Alternate ridges and furrows. A series of deep short waves.

Corundum - Native alumna, or aluminum oxide, Al2O3, occurring as rhombohedral crystals and also in masses and variously colored grains. Applied specifically to nontransparent kinds used as abrasives. It is hardest mineral except the diamond. Corundum and its artificial counterparts are abrasives especially suited to the grinding of metals.

Coslettizing - Producing a black, rust-resisting surface on iron and steel by boiling for some hours in water containing phosphoric acid and iron filings.

Cottrell Process - An electrostatic method of removing solid particles from gases.

Count Rate Meter - A device which gives a continuous indication of the average rate of ionizing events.

Counterbore - To enlarge the top part of a hole to specific size, as for the head of a socket-head or cap screw. Also the tool that is used.

Countersink - To enlarge the topo part of a hole at an angle for a flat-head screw. Also, the tool that is used.

Couple - Two dissimilar conductors in electrical contact. An electromotive force in created under proper electrolytic influences or during heating.

Coupling - Short piece used to connect two lengths of pipe

Coupon - A piece pf metal from which a test specimen is to be prepared-often an extra piece (as on a casting or forging) or a separare piece made for test purposes (such as a test weldment)

Courses - Alternate layers of material in a pattern, or brickwork.

Cover - A protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. Neutral covers simply protect metal from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer.

Cover Core - A core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern. Also used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. A core placed over another core to create a flat parting line.

Cover Half - In Die casting, the stationary half of the die.

Covered Electrode - A filler-metal electrode, used in arc welding, consisting of a metal core vire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal form the atmosphere, improves the properties of the weld metal and stabilizes the arc. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with cellulose or other binder.

CR - (Cold-rolling)Rolling steel without first reheating it. This process reduces thickness of the steel, produces a smoother surface and makes it easier to machine.

Crab - See Core Crab

Crack, Hot Tear - "A rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stresses. See also Quench Crack "

Cracked Edges - Discontinuity or cracked condition on the edge of the strip.

Cracking - A coating defect consisting of a break in the cured film which exposes the bare substrate. Cracking usually occurs during fabrication of the coated plate when the coating is too brittle or the adhesion is too low.

Cracking Strip - A fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent cracking.

Crane - A machine for lifting heavy weights; may be hand or power operated. Type include electric, gantry, jib, monorail, etc.

Crane, Gantry - A bridge carrying a traveling crane and supported by a pair of trestles running on parallel tracks.

Crane, Jib - A crane suspended from a jib.

Crane, Mobile - A crane supported on structure that rolls on wheels; may be moved manually or by its own power.

Crane, Wall Jib - A jib crane mounted on a wall rather than on an overhead beam.

Crash Deck - The impact deck between the discharge of the sinter machine and the sinter breaker.

Cratering - A coating defect consisting of small, apparently uncoated, spots of coated plate consisting of a very thin film of coating which was contaminated by oil, silicone, or foreign matter. Eyeholing is similar to cratering, but with metal exposure in the crater.

Crawling - A coating defect consisting of a lack of adhesion to, or dewetting of, the substrate while the coating or ink is wet. The cause is due to a difference in surface tension of the coating and substrate. Crawling is also known as cissing and dewetting.

Craze Crack (Crazing) - Minute crack on ceramic or refractory surface caused by thermal or mechanical shock.

Crazing (Worming) - A defect found in pack-hardened tools, manifested in surface markings.

Creep - The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

Creep Limit - The maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an assigned rate.

Creep Strength - (1) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. (2) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature.

Crib - Network of cast iron used to support the cope when no cope flask is used.

Crimped Edge A damaged - A damaged edge due to the strip wandering side-to-side into obstructions as it moves down the line.

Crimper - Tool used to secure a metal clip on the steel band.

Cristobalite - Simplest crystallographic form of SiO2.

Critical Cooling Rate - The minimum rate of continuous cooling just sufficient to prevent undesired transformations. For steel, the slowest rate at which it can be cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of austenite at any temperature above the Ms.

Critical (temperature)Range - Temperatures at which changes in the phase of a metal take place. Changes are determined by absorption of heat when the metal is heated and liberation of heat when it is cooled.

Critical Shear Stress - The shear stress required to cause slip in a single crystal, in a designated slip direction on a given slip plane. Referred to as the critical resolved shear stress if the shear stress reaches a threshold level.

Critical Strain - A term used in stress corrosion cracking tests to indicate the maximum strain rate necessary to promote stress corrosion cracks.

Cronak Process - A method of producing a film of chromium salts on since surfaces to inhibit corrosion.

Croning Process (C Process, Cronizing) - "A casting process name after its German developer Johannes Croning. It is a precision production process using a phenol formaldehyde resin binder. See Shell Molding "

Cropping - Cutting off ends of billets ingots or slabs containing pipe or other defects.

Cross Breaks - 1) Creases which appear as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling. 2) Quality defect on the edge of plate coming to the line (broken steel but not open breaks). 3) Hard spots caused by abrupt deformation of the strip after hot rolling and due to stressing beyond the elastic limit of the metal.

Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal) - The direction parallel to the axes of the rolls during rolling. The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing.

Cross Feed - The feed that operates across the axis of the workpiece or at right angles to the main or principal feed on a machine.

Cross Gate - See Runner

Cross Head - See 'Pressure Roll.'

Cross Section - A view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object.

Crossbar - Wood or metal bar placed in a flask to give greater anchorage to the sand than is afforded by its four walls.

Crossbow - A curvature across the width of the strip at a 90-degree angle to the direction in which the strip has been rolled or uncoiled.

Crown - Furnace roof, especially when dome-shaped; highest point of an arch.

Crucible - A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay, or clay or other refractory material, and used in the melting of metal. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, cast steel or wrought steel.

Crucible Furnace - A furnace fired with coke, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible.

Crucible Steel - High-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered crucible. Crucible steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman in about 1750 and remained in use until the late 1940's.

Crucible Zone - The zone in the cupola between the bottom and the tuyere.

Crush - Buckling or breaking of a section of mold due to incorrect register when closing. Also, an indentation in the casting surface due to displacement of sand in the mold when the mold is closed.

Crush Strip or Bead - An indentation in the parting line of a pattern plate which ensures that cope and drag have good contact by producing a ridge of sand which crushes against the other surface of the mold or core.

Cryogenic - Pertaining to very low temperature. Aluminum gains strength as temperature is reduced, making it an appropriate material for cryogenic applications

Crystal - (1) A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms. ions or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. (2) A coherent piece of matter, all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom; in metals, usually synonymous with grain and crystallite.

Crystal Analysis - Determination of crystal structure.

Crystal Lattice - The way atoms are arranged in a crystal. Spacewise, there are only 14 different lattices.

Crystalline Fracture - A fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a grainy appearance. Compare fibrous fracture.

Crystallization - The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. (Fatigue, the failure of metals under repeated stresses, is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.)

CTD - Cumulative Trauma Disorder. Illnesses that develop gradually over time and involve disorders of the soft tissues of the body. Caused or aggravated by repeatedly or constantly applied excessive forces, awkward postures, or highly repetitive movements of the body.

Cu - Chemical symbol for Copper.

Cube-Centered - Metallography- (concerning space lattices) - Body-centered cubic. Refers to crystal structure.

Culvert Pipe - Heavy gauge, galvanized steel that is spiral-formed or riveted into corrugated pipe, which is used for highway drainage applications.

Cuno Filter - An in-line filter that takes the dirt out of the oil on a turbine.

Cuploa - A cylindrical,straight shaft furnace (usually lined with refractories) for melting metal in direct contact with coke by forcing air under pressure through openings near its base.

Cure - To harden

Cure Time - Full polymerization is a function of time and temperature.

Curing - The process by which synthetic materials form continuous films by various combinations of oxidation, solvent evaporation and heat of polymerization according to their basic resin structures.

Curing Time (No Bake) - That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches maximum hardness.

Curl - Appears as a relatively uniform curvature or sweep along the length of coiled metal.

Current - The movement of free electrons in a meterial.

Customer Test Strip - A full width sample of steel used in performing testing procedures.

Cut - Defect in a casting resulting from erosion of the sand by metal flowing over the mold or cored surface.

Cut Edge - The normal edge that results from the shearing, slitting or trimming of a mill edge.

Cut in half - Split one (1) coil into two (2) coils (not necessarily 50% in each coil).

Cut out - IMIS term meaning loss of prime weight of a coil or cutting out rips and cracks on the edges of a coil.

Cut out the center - The act of removing the center laps or ID of a coil with long handled sheers to remove defects. The Reelman is sometimes directed to perform this task.

Cut-to-Length - Process to uncoil sections of flat-rolled steel and cut them into a desired length. Product that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stacked.

Cutoff Machine, Abrasive - A device using a thin abrasive wheel rotating at high speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations.

Cutter, Gate - A scoop or other form of cutting gates in the mold.

Cutting Fluid - A liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting to improve the work surface finish.

Cutting Tool - A hardened piece of metal (tool steel) that is machined and grounc so that it has the shape and cutting edges appropriate for the operation for which it is to be used.

Cutting Wheel - The plastic discs impregnated with an abrasive for cutting ceramics and metals. Used on abrasive cutoff machines.

CW - Continuous weld-amethod of produciong small diameter (1/2-4)

Cyanide Hardening - A process of introducing carbon and nitrogen into the surface of steel by heating it to a suitable temperature in a molten bath of sodium cyanide, or a mixture of sodium and potassium cyanide, diluted with sodium carbonate and quenching in oil or wate. This process id used where a thin case and high hardness are required.

Cycles - See hertz

Cyclone (Centrifugal Collector) - In air pollution control, a controlled descending vortex created to spiral objectionable gases and dust to the bottom of a collector core.

Cyclone Separator - Rotating strainer that uses a centrifugal process to remove particulates from water.

Cyclonic Scrubber - In air pollution control, radial liquid (usually water) sprays introduced into cyclones to facilitate collection of particles.

Cyclotron - A device for accelerating charged particles to high energies by means of an alternating electric field between electrodes placed in a constant magnetic field.

compressive force, with or without dies. -

compressive force, with or without dies. - NULL

Cake - A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.

Camber or Bow - Edgewise curvature. A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line.

Canning - A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface, sometimes referred to as oil canning.

Carbide - A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.

Carbon - Chemical symbol C. Element No. 6 of the periodic system; atomic weight 12.01; has three allotropic modifications, all non-metallic. Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. Its metallurgical use, in the form of coke, for reduction of oxides, is very extensive.

Carbon Equivalent - Referring to the rating of weld-ability, this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. For rating of weld-ability, a formula commonly used is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15].

Carbon Free - Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.

Carbon Potential - A measure of the capacity of an environment containing active carbon to alter or maintain, under prescribed conditions, the carbon concentration in a steel.

Carbon Range - In steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.

Carbon Restoration - Replacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level.

Carbon Steel - Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels, which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages.

Carbon Steel - A steel containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon, except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of residual sulfur. Silicon is usually limited to about 0.60% and manganese to about 1,65%. Also termed plain carbon steel, ordinary steel, straight carbon steel.

Carbonitriding - Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocardons, carbon monocide, and ammonia. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened.

Carbonitriding. - A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and, by diffusion, creates a concentration gradient. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the work piece.

Carburizing - A process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at the surface and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient.

Carburizing (Cementation) - Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids or gases. The oldest method of case hardening.

Cartridge Brass - 70% copper 30% zinc. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys; it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-working, poor hot working and poor machining properties. Rated excellent for soft-soldering; good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-working. Temper is obtained by cold rolling.

Case - In a ferrous alloy, the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion, or core.

Case Hardening - Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy.

Case Hardening - A generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that change the the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or nitrogen, or a mixture of the two, and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient.

Cast Iron - Iron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about 2%).

Cast Steel - Steel in the form of castings, usually containing less than 2% carbon.

Cast Steel - Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.

Cavitation Damage - Wearing away of metal through the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid.

Cementite - A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron carbide, which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6.69% of carbon. Hard and brittle, it is the hard constituent of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. It is magnetizable, but not as readily as ferrite.

Cementite - A compound of iron and carbon, known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. When it occurs as a phase in steel, the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements.

Cementite - A metastable carbide, with composition Fe3C and orthorhombic crystal structure, having limited substitutional solubility for the carbide-forming elements, notably manganese.

Centrifugal Casting - A casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated or revolved.

Ceramic Tools - Cutting tools made from fused, sintered, or cemented metallic oxides.

Chafery - A charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron making processes to reheat a bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag.

Charcoal Tin Plate - Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades).

Charpy Test - A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed, as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum, is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness.

Chatter Marks - Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.

Chemical Milling - Removing metal stock by controlled selective chemical etching.

Chemical Polishing - Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by chemical treatment.

Chromadizing (Chromodizing, Chromatizing) - Forming an acid surface to improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys, mainly aircraft skins, by treatment with a solution of chromic acid.

Chromium - Chemical symbol Cr. Element No. 24 of the periodic system; atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases harden-ability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon).

Chromizing - A surface treatment at elevated temperature, generally carried out in pack, vapor, or salt bath, in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of chromium into the base metal.

Clad Metal - A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling, welding, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.

Clad Metal - A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling, welding, casting, heavy chemical deposition, or heavy electroplating.

Cleavage - Fracture of a crystal by crack propagation across a crystallographic plane of low index.

Cleavage Fracture - Fracture of a grain, or most of the grains, in a polycrystalline metal by cleavage, resulting in bright reflecting facets.

Cleavage Plane - A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily.

Cluster Mill - A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls.

Cobalt - Chemical symbol Co. Element No. 27 of the periodic system; atomic weight 58.94. A gray magnetic metal, of medium hardness; it resists corrosion like nickel, which it resembles closely; melting point 2696 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 8.9. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel, the sulfate being used as electrolyte. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel; it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite.

Coil Breaks - Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of coiling, occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold.

Coil Weld - A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil - not always visible in the cold reduced product.

Coils - Coiled flat sheet or strip metal- usually in one continuous piece or length.

Coining - A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface.

Cold Reduced Strip - Metal strip, produced from hot-rolled strip, by rolling on a cold reduction mill.

Cold Reduction - Reduction of metal size, usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness, while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

Cold Rolled Finish - Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.

Cold Short - A condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures below the recrystalization temperature.

Cold Shut - (1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. (2) A portion of the surface of a forging that is separated, in part, from the main body of metal by oxide.

Cold Work - Permanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its recrystallization temperature.

Columbium - Chemical symbol Cb. Element No. 41 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 92.91. It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. Specific gravity 8.57. Melting point at about 4380 (degrees) F. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels, also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. (Now known as Niobium (Nb), element No. 41 of the periodic system.)

Columnar Structure - A structure consisting of elongated grains whose tong axes are parallel.

Columnar Structure - A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, having the long axis perpendicular to the casting surface.

Constitute - A phase, or combination of phases, that occurs in a characteristic configuration in a microstructure.

Constitutional Diagram - A graphical representation of the temperature and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram). A constitutional diagram may be, or may approximate, and equilibrium diagram, or may represent metastable conditions or phases. Compare equilibrium diagram.

Continuous Casting - A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured, and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.

Continuous Casting - A casting technique in which an ingot, billet, tube, or other shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured, so that its length is not determined by mold dimensions.

Continuous Furnace - Furnace, in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace.

Continuous Phase - In an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one phase, the phase that forms the background or matrix in which the other phase or phases are present as isolated volumes.

Continuous Pickling - Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks.

Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces - A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place.

Controlled Rolling - A hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is closely controlled, particularly during the final rolling passes, to produce a fine-grain microstructure.

Converter - A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.

Cooling Stresses - Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling; also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling, and retained.

Coring - A variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of structure (such as a dendrite, a grain or a carbide particle) resulting from non-equilibrium growth over a range of temperature.

Corrosion - Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.

Corrosion - Deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

Corrosion Embrittlement - The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack, usually intergranular and often not visually apparent.

Corrosion Fatigue - Effect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive environment alone.

Creep - Time-dependent strain occurring under stress.

Creep - Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is called primary creep; that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate, secondary creep; that occurring at an accelerating rate, tertiary creep.

Creep Limit - (1) The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified quantity of creep in a given time. (2) The maximum nominal stress under which the creep strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant temperature. Sometimes used synonymously with creep strength.

Crevice Erosion - A type of concentration-cell corrosion; corrosion of a metal that is caused by the concentration of dissolved salts, metal ions, oxygen, or other gases, and such, in crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid stream, with a resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting.

Critical Cooling Rate - The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed.

Critical Point - (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure, phase or physical properties occurs; same as transformation temperature. (2) In an equilibrium diagram, that specific combination of composition, temperature and pressure at which the phases of an inhomogeneous system are in equilibrium.

Critical Point - (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure, phase, or physical properties occurs. Same as transformation temperature. (2) In an equilibrium diagram, that specific value of composition, temperature and pressure, or combinations thereof, at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems are in equilibrium.

Critical Points - Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.

Critical Range - A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. Also termed transformation range.

Critical Strain - That strain which results in the formation of very large grains during recrystallization.

Critical Temperature - Synonymous with critical point if pressure is constant.

Crop - The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded.

Cross Rolling - The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about 90 (degrees) from the direction of the previous rolling.

Cross Rolling - Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal; usually done to increase width.

Cross Rolling - A (hot) rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a direction perpendicular to, as well as a direction parallel to, the length of the original slab.

Crown - A contour on a sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center.

Crown or Heavy Center - Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge.

Crystalline - Composed of crystals.

Cup Fracture - A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed.

Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture) - Fracture, frequently seen in tensile test pieces of a ductile material, in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a central flat area of failure in tension, with an exterior extended rim of failure in shear.

Cutting Speed - The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool and work piece in the principal direction of cutting.

Cyaniding - Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. The cyanided alloy is usually quench hardened.

Cyaniding - Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt, followed by quenching.